The aircraft shall comply with the voice communication failure procedures, and with those of the following procedures as are appropriate.
The aircraft shall attempt to establish communications with the appropriate air traffic control unit using all other available means. In addition, the aircraft, when forming part of the aerodrome traffic at a controlled aerodrome, shall keep a watch for such instructions as may be issued by visual signals.
An aircraft equipped with an SSR transponder is expected to operate the transponder on Mode A Code 7600 to indicate that it has experienced air-ground communication failure. An ADS-B equipped aircraft experiencing radio communication failure may transmit the appropriate ADS-B emergency and/or urgency mode. An aircraft equipped with other surveillance system transmitters, including ADS-C, might indicate the loss of air-ground communication by all of the available means.
If the aircraft fails to indicate that it is able to receive and acknowledge transmissions, separation shall be maintained between the aircraft having the communication failure and other aircraft, based on the assumption that the aircraft will:
Continue to fly in visual meteorological conditions;
Land at the nearest suitable aerodrome; and
Report the arrival by the most expeditious means to the appropriate air traffic control unit
In IMC or when conditions are such that it does not appear likely that the pilot will complete the flight in accordance with the prescribed VMC RCF procedures above:
Unless otherwise prescribed on the basis of a regional air navigation agreement, in airspace where procedural separation is being applied, maintain the last assigned speed and level, or minimum flight altitude if higher, for a period of 20 minutes following the aircraft’s failure to report its position over a compulsory reporting point and thereafter adjust level and speed in accordance with the filed flight plan; or
In airspace where an ATS surveillance system is used in the provision of air traffic control, maintain the last assigned speed and level, or minimum flight altitude if higher, for a period of 7 minutes following:
i) The time the last assigned level or minimum flight altitude is reached; orii) Time the transponder is set to Code 7600 or the ADS-B transmitter is set to indicate the loss of air-ground communications; oriii) The aircraft’s failure to report its position over a compulsory reporting point;whichever is later and thereafter adjust level and speed in accordance with the filed flight plan;
When being vectored or having been directed by ATC to proceed offset using RNAV without a specified limit, proceed in the most direct manner possible to rejoin the current flight plan route no later than the next significant point, taking into consideration the applicable minimum flight altitude;
Proceed according to the current flight plan route to the appropriate designated navigation aid or fix serving the destination aerodrome and, when required to ensure compliance, hold over this aid or fix until commencement of descent;
Commence descent from the navigation aid or fix specified in at, or as close as possible to the expected approach time last received and acknowledged; or, if no expected approach time has been received and acknowledged, at, or as close as possible to, the estimated time of arrival resulting from the current flight plan;
Complete a normal instrument approach procedure as specified for the designated navigation aid or fix; and
Land, if possible, within 30 minutes after the estimated time of arrival specified in or the last acknowledged expected approach time, whichever is later.