Let's see the differences between emergencies and urgencies in aviation.
An emergency in aviation is a situation that requires immediate action to ensure the safety of the aircraft and its occupants. Emergencies are critical situations that demand prompt and decisive action, as they pose an immediate threat to the safety of the aircraft or its occupants.
Examples of emergencies in aviation include engine failure, loss of control, fire onboard, or an in-flight medical emergency.
On the other hand, an urgency in aviation is a situation that requires attention but does not pose an immediate problem to the safety of the aircraft or its occupants. Urgencies are situations that may require expedited handling to prevent them from escalating into emergencies.
Examples of urgencies in aviation include the need to divert due to weather, a minor technical issue, or a sick passenger who does not require immediate medical attention.
In case of an emergency, a pilot must declare it immediately to air traffic control (ATC). This helps ensure that the necessary emergency services are available and ready to respond to the situation. To correctly declare an emergency, a pilot should use the phrase "mayday, mayday, mayday" followed by the name of the aircraft and the nature of the emergency. In the case of a fire onboard, a pilot may say "mayday, mayday, mayday. Miami Approach, This is ANAC123, we have a fire onboard...."
After declaring an emergency, the pilot should provide as much information as possible to ATC, including the type and severity of the emergency, the number of people onboard, and the pilot's intentions.
The pilot should also follow the emergency procedures outlined in the aircraft's operating manual to mitigate the emergency as much as possible.
In summary, emergencies and urgencies are different situations that require different levels of response from pilots and ATC. In the case of an emergency, immediate action is necessary to ensure the safety of the aircraft and its occupants, while urgencies require prompt attention to prevent them from escalating into emergencies.