Generally speaking, airports can be controlled or uncontrolled. Depending or not if there's a control tower available.
Runway – Area with a solid surface where takeoff and landing operations of aircraft are carried out. It is normally be leveled with no obstructions. Runways have special markings that distinguish them from taxiways and, at nighttime, runway and taxiway lightings are different.
Apron - place used as an aircraft parking space. It is also used for loading and unloading aircraft. Aprons are usually packed and placed in front of a terminal building or next to a hangar. The size of the apron area and the design of the apron are usually dictated by the number of aircraft expected at the airport.
Terminal Building - where the airport’s administrative offices are located. This building conducts pre-and post-travel inspections of passengers. Lounges and cafes are also provided for passengers and crew.
Control Tower - place in which air traffic controllers will provide clearance and instruction for operating aircraft. The controller observes all aircraft in the area and informs the pilot of movements at the airport, landing route, visibility, wind speed, runway details, etc.
Hangar - location where aircraft are repaired and maintained. A taxiway connects the hangar to the runway, allowing easy access.